How Quartz Crystal Microbalance Works to Measure Surface & Thin Film Interactions

How Quartz Crystal Microbalance Works to Measure Surface & Thin Film Interactions

Quartz Crystal Microbalance allows for the accurate measurement of thin films interactions by utilising the unique properties of quartz. However, it is only with the addition of dissipation measurement (QCM-D) that you can truly unlock the power of QCM instruments. How did Quartz Crystal Microbalance come about? As early as 1880 Jacques and Pierre Curie discovered that when mechanical stress is applied to quartz a voltage proportional to the stress is also created. However, the term Quartz Crystal Microbalance wasn’t coined until the late 1950s by Sauerbrey, who also demonstrated that the oscillation frequency of the quartz was dependant on changes in surface mass. This led to the discovery of the Sauerbrey equation. The Sauerbrey equation shows that when voltage is applied to a quartz crystal to produce a specific oscillation, any change in the

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Benefits of Using Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis in Particle Detection

Benefits of Using Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis in Particle Detection

Knowing the size distribution of individual nanoparticles offers a competitive advantage in many Industries and fields of research. Find out how Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) instruments like the Malvern NanoSight NS300 can help you detect and size individual nanoparticles using high resolution modelling and reporting. Why it’s important to detect the size and count of nanoparticles The production of nanoscale materials includes use and experimentation with a wide range of substances. This brings up a range of considerations to health and safety: Is the research conducted safely? Does the production of materials pose risks? Is the end use of the nanoscale material suitable for the end user? Can the materials and associated byproducts be disposed of safely? Therefore it’s essential that every effort is made to classify nanoparticles and assess their safety and fit for

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Biomolecular Science: How to Measure Molecular Weight and Size Using Light Scattering Detectors

Biomolecular Science: How to Measure Molecular Weight and Size Using Light Scattering Detectors

Light scattering detectors measure the size and determine the structure molecules through a variety of techniques and equations. However, with so many systems of measuring available, it’s important to know how they work, and which instrument is most beneficial to your application. What is molecular weight and size? Molecular weight is the mass of an individual molecule, specifically the mass of material required to make a single mole. Molecular size relates to the physical size of an individual molecule. When used in light scattering techniques we refer to the ‘radius of gyration’ or Rg. Measurements are in nanometers. Why is measuring molecule weight and size important? In industrial application, there are a range of reasons for measuring the weight and size of molecules, such as: improved performance in strength and durability of plastics and polymers

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SEM & Imaging: The Applications and Practical Uses of Scanning Electron Microscopes

SEM & Imaging: The Applications and Practical Uses of Scanning Electron Microscopes

Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEMs) are used across a number of industrial, commercial, and research applications. From cutting edge fabrication processes to forensic applications, there’s a diverse range of practical applications for the modern SEM. How SEMs work A Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) uses focused beams of electrons to render high resolution, three-dimensional images. These images provide information on: topography morphology composition A schematic representation of an SEM is shown in Figure 1. Electrons are generated at the top of the column by the electron source. They are then accelerated down the column that is under vacuum, which helps to prevent any atoms and molecules present in the column from interacting with the electron beam and ensures good quality imaging. Electromagnetic lenses are used to control the path of the electrons. The condenser defines the size

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Particle Size Analysers and How They Work

Particle Size Analysers and How They Work

Particle size analysis employs a number of different methods to measure the size distribution of particles in the nano, micron and millimetre range. The best type of analysis will depend on the type of particle you need to measure. Often, several kinds of analysis are used to gather a more complete picture. Read on to find out which types of analysis would best suit your needs. Laser diffraction analysis Laser diffraction is a popular method for measuring particle size distribution, particularly between the 0.01 to 3500 micron range. How laser diffraction works A beam of light of fixed wavelength, projected at a group of dispersed particles will scatter light at different angles depending on their size. Larger particles will scatter light at smaller angles while smaller particles will scatter light at larger angles. A series

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