Particle Size Analysis
Researchers in Germany have begun to uncover how the polyphenols found in tea affect cells on a molecular level.
The scientists used mass spectrometry and circular dichroism spectroscopy to measure the interactions between individual polyphenol molecules and biomolecules from the nucleus – histone proteins, double-stranded DNA and quadruplex DNA.
Scientists are continually looking to improve time-keeping and one essential ingredient is a better understanding of the properties of the atoms used in atomic clocks.
Now JQI researchers have come up with a novel method to measure the strength of two of rubidium’s atomic transitions with unprecedented accuracy.
They applied laser beams to rubidium atoms in such a way that cumulatively, the light shifts due to the probe they were using cancelled.
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The Mastersizer 3000 is a new particle size analyser that is capable of providing accurate and fast distributions in both wet and dry dispersions. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at the Mastersizer 3000, discussing how it works and some of its key features.
What is particle size analysis?
Firstly, for those who may be unfamiliar with the role of a particle size analyser such as the Mastersizer 3000, allow us to explain very briefly
In order to properly understand many products, it is critical to understand the particle size distribution of those products. Without this knowledge, the physical and chemical properties of the product cannot be fully grasped.
An examination of the various industries that use particle size analysis during the manufacturing or production stage reveals that the process is used for a similar reason: quite simply, to control the amount of chemical reactions that occur when the product is being used. In this article, we’ll take a look at seven of the most crucial properties that are affected by particle size in various manufacturing scenarios.
1. Rate of reactions
When it comes to solids, the surface area of the particle is critical in determining the rate of chemical reaction. Chemical reactions are far more likely to occur in fine particles than otherwise. A great example of an industry reliant on this principle is the cement industry, which must deliver the appropriate reaction rate in order to achieve the desired product.
In order to extract valuable minerals from naturally occurring ores, the process of comminution and milling must take place to produce materials of an appropriate particle size. This process is critical in order to ensure operating costs stay low and to ensure the minerals extracted are of high value. Traditionally, particle size analysis has been performed through manual measurement, but increasingly the industry is turning towards on-line particle size measurement methods such as laser diffraction. In this article, we’ll look at four reasons that laser diffraction is the optimum method for particle sizing in the mineral processing industries.
1. Quicker and higher ROI
Particle size analysis technology, such as laser diffraction and FlowCAM digital imaging, plays an important role in a range of areas, from pharmaceuticals and food to cement mixture. In this article, we’ll look at one particular use of FlowCAM particle analysis: the detection of invasive species, in particular the quagga and zebra mussels of the U.S.
The quagga and zebra mussel threat
In the U.S., the threat of invasive quagga and zebra mussels is a very real one. They arrived in the U.S. from Europe some time during the ‘80s and quickly wrought havoc on water storage, water delivery and hydropower systems and structures. Additionally, these invasive species have the potential to cause long-term damage to the ecosystem.
Originally built in 1999, FlowCAM is a technology used for particle size analysis. It was the first automated instrument to use digital imaging with the goal of measuring the size and shape of particulates in a fluid. These days, FlowCAM technology is used in a wide variety of industries with a wide range of uses, from ensuring the survival of plankton species to quality control in pharmaceutical products. In this article, we’ll look at seven different applications for FlowCAM.
Plankton absorbs around half of the world’s carbon dioxide and is a mass producer of oxygen, making it crucial to the health of our planet. FlowCAM is capable of detecting and measuring marine plankton in a continuous flow of fluid. Because measurements occur in real time, scientists are able to acquire a range of information including size, shape, fluorescence and concentration immediately, a much better alternative to the longer times afforded by traditional microscopy methods.
In the past, particle size analysis for parenteral formulations — that is, formulations that are delivered to the body by piercing the skin — have been done with manual processes such as visual inspection. Basically, scientists would hold vials up to a light and grade the count in three categories — high, moderate and low — based on their own subjective analysis. There was also the method of using a light obscuration instrument, which is able to produce a particle count but is unable to shed light on the nature of particles. Additionally, it is unable to differentiate between, for example, air bubbles and aggregated proteins.
While both of these methods meet requirements set down by the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA), their shortcomings are undoubtedly concerning. Pharmaceutical companies are becoming increasingly aware that obtaining exact particle size measurements is crucial in meeting quality demands, accelerating development timetables, minimising risk and, in all, achieving a successful product.
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In 1854, a physician named John Snow used a microscope to prove that, contrary to public opinion, cholera was not an airborne disease, but was rather a result of contaminated drinking water from a local well. If Snow was still alive today, he’d probably be astonished at just how far particle analysis of drinking water has come, with incredibly advanced particle size analysers available that can now monitor the presence of particulate matter in water supplies in real time.
One particle size analyser that has experienced a great deal of interest in recent times is the FlowCAM particle imaging and analysis system. This system has the ability to take high-res images of individual particulates in a fluid in real-time, measuring dozens of parameters in the process and saving the data for analysis. FlowCAM is becoming an increasingly common system for ensuring water quality remains high and is being used by many major organisations and companies, including:
Particle size analysis: it sounds tricky, but mark our words, it’s something that everyone would be well-served learning more about. Whether you realise it or not, particle size analysis plays an extremely important role in many of the products we use, consume and interact with in our everyday lives. In this article, we’re going to offer you a brief introduction to particle size analysis, listing some of its most common applications as well as its most established methods. We’ll also take a look at zeta potential, a measurement that is often used along side particle size analysis.
What is particle size analysis?
There are a huge number of industries which rely on methods of particle size analysis to ensure products are of the highest quality. From powders to creams, gels, lotions, and other mixtures, the size and characteristics of the particles contained within can have dramatic effects on properties such as stability, appearance, flow and chemical reactivity. As a result, a highly important industry has developed centred on particle size analysis, with constant innovation in methods that provide more and more accurate ways of analysing particle size.